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Tamarisk Biocontrol Using Tamarisk Beetles: Potential Consequences for Riparian Birds in the Southwestern United Stains

Paxton, Eben H. and Theimer, Tad C. and Sogge, Mark K. (2011) Tamarisk Biocontrol Using Tamarisk Beetles: Potential Consequences for Riparian Birds in the Southwestern United Stains. The Condor, 113 (2). pp. 255-265. ISSN 0010-5422

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Publisher’s or external URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/cond.2011.090226

Abstract

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.)and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

Item Type: Article
Publisher’s Statement: © 2011 The Cooper Ornithological Society.
ID number or DOI: 10.1525/cond.2011.090226
Keywords: BEETLES; biocontrol; biological-control; BIOLOGICAL control systems; breeding birds; Colorado River; DEFOLIATION; Diorhabda; ecological trap; gypsy-moth defoliation; INVASIVE plants; leaves; nest-site selection; numerical response; PLANT phenology; research; riparian habitat; saltcedar; shifted phenology; SPRUCE budworm; Tamarisk; Tamarix; Taniarix; thaumetopoea-pityocampa population; WILLOW flycatcher
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Q Science > QP Physiology
NAU Depositing Author Academic Status: Faculty/Staff
Department/Unit: College of Engineering, Forestry, and Natural Science > Biological Sciences
Date Deposited: 30 Sep 2015 19:29
URI: http://openknowledge.nau.edu/id/eprint/502

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