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Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis reveals genetic relationships within Bacillus anthracis

Keim, P. and Price, L. B. and Klevytska, A. M. and Smith, K. L. and Schupp, J. M. and Okinaka, R. and Jackson, P. J. and Hugh-Jones, M. E. (2000) Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis reveals genetic relationships within Bacillus anthracis. Journal of Bacteriology, 182 (10). pp. 2928-2936. ISSN 1098-5530


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Publisher’s or external URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jb.182.10.2928-2936.2000


Bacillus anthracis is one of the most genetically homogeneous pathogens described, making strain discrimination particularly difficult. In this paper, we present a novel molecular typing system based on rapidly evolving variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci. Multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) uses the combined power of multiple alleles at several marker loci. In our system, fluorescent-labelled PCR primers are used to produce PCR amplification products from eight VNTR regions in the B. anthracis genome. These are detected and their sizes are determined using an ABI377 automated DNA sequencer. Five of these eight loci were discovered by sequence characterization of molecular markers (vrrC1, vrrC2, vrrB1, vrrB2, and CG3), two were discovered by searching complete plasmid nucleotide sequences (pXO1-aat and pXO2-at), and one was known previously (vrrA). MLVA characterization of 426 B. anthracis isolates identified 89 distinct genotypes. VNTR markers frequently identified multiple alleles (from two to nine), with Nei's diversity values between 0.3 and 0.8. Unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average cluster analysis identified six genetically distinct groups that appear to be derived from clones. Some of these clones show worldwide distribution, whereas others are restricted to particular geographic regions. Human commerce has undoubtedly contributed to the dispersal of particular clones in ancient and modern times.

Item Type: Article
ID number or DOI: 10.1128/JB.182.10.2928-2936.2000
Keywords: analytical methods; analytical techniques; Anthrax; Bacillaceae; Bacillales; Bacilli; Bacillus anthracis; Bacillus (Bacteria); bacteria; bacterium; Biotechnology (General) (WW000) (Revised June 2002) [Formerly Biotechnology]; diversity; DNA, Bacterial; dna repeats; Firmicutes; genetic analysis; Genetic markers; Genetics; Genetics and Molecular Biology of Microorganisms (ZZ395) (New March 2000); Genetic variation; Genomes; Genotype; Humans; identification; Minisatellite Repeats; PCR; Phylogeny; Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Animals (LL821) (New March 2000); Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Humans (VV210) (New March 2000); Prokaryotes; sequence; strains; Techniques and Methodology (ZZ900); Variability; variable number tandem repeat; VNTR gene; vrrA gene; vrrB gene; vrrC gene; Zoonoses; zoonotic infections
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
Q Science > QR Microbiology
NAU Depositing Author Academic Status: Faculty/Staff
Department/Unit: College of Engineering, Forestry, and Natural Science > Biological Sciences
Date Deposited: 08 Oct 2015 23:50
URI: http://openknowledge.nau.edu/id/eprint/808

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