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Phylogeny, Biogeography, Floral Morphology Of Cyphocarpoideae (Campanulaceae)

Hansen, Kimberly M. (2016) Phylogeny, Biogeography, Floral Morphology Of Cyphocarpoideae (Campanulaceae). Masters thesis, Northern Arizona University.


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Campanulaceae is a family of flowering plants in the Asterales that is composed of five morphologically distinct subfamilies. Historically, systematic studies have focused within the two large subfamilies and have largely ignored the relationships among the subfamilies. Furthermore, studies of the anomalous Cyphocarpoideae, consisting of three species distributed in the Atacama Desert of Chile, are all but absent from the literature. Historical hypotheses concerning the evolution of the subfamilies and the placement of Cyphocarpoideae are tested with molecular phylogenies constructed from 57 plastid coding sequences for 78 taxa and 3 nuclear ribosomal genes for 47 taxa. All five subfamilies are sampled including a phylogenetically diverse representation of the larger subfamilies and all three extant species of Cyphocarpoideae. A rapid radiation early in the evolution of Campanulaceae is evident including an initial divergence into two lineages. In the lineage comprised of Lobelioideae, Nemacladoideae and Cyphocarpoideae, Cyphocarpoideae is sister to Nemacladoideae. Divergence dates, geologic events and floristic affinities are used to reconstruct a biogeographic history that includes a single long distance dispersal event from South Africa (origin of Lobelioideae) to the Neotropics via GAARlandia followed by a second dispersal to the Nearctic(origin of Nemacladoideae). The distribution of Cyphocarpoideae can be explained by a dispersal from either the Nearctic or Neotropics.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Publisher’s Statement: © Copyright is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Cline Library, Northern Arizona University. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Keywords: Biogeography; Molecular phylogenies; Rapid radiation; Floral dispersion; Campanulaceae
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
NAU Depositing Author Academic Status: Student
Department/Unit: Graduate College > Theses and Dissertations
College of Engineering, Forestry, and Natural Science > Biological Sciences
Date Deposited: 29 Jul 2016 18:42
URI: http://openknowledge.nau.edu/id/eprint/2948

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