About OpenKnowledge@NAU | For NAU Authors

Temporal estimation in child and adolescent clinical populations with diagnoses of depression, anxiety, or ADHD

Krings, Zachary Adam (2021) Temporal estimation in child and adolescent clinical populations with diagnoses of depression, anxiety, or ADHD. Doctoral thesis, Northern Arizona University.

[thumbnail of Krings_2021_temporal_estimation_child_adolescent_clinical_populations_.pdf] Text
Krings_2021_temporal_estimation_child_adolescent_clinical_populations_.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (1MB) | Request a copy


Temporal (time) perception has long been an area of interest for philosophers and researchers. It is foundational to how individuals conceptualize reality, and how they adjust behaviors and communication to suit specific physical and social environments. A number of factors influence one’s perception of time (i.e., age, affective state, medication, various mental health conditions, etc.). Research has yielded mixed results about individuals’ time perception ability and has largely focused on assessment of short durations (milliseconds to seconds). There has also been less focus on certain populations, such as children and adolescents with specific mental health diagnoses. The present study aimed to add to the research base by assessing the time estimation ability of children (ages 7-9, n = 68) and adolescents (ages 10-19, n = 116) on a one-minute prospective timing task (One Minute Estimation Test). Participants were grouped by mental health diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or ADHD. Age and gender differences were also examined. A factorial ANOVA was utilized to evaluate three research questions assessing whether children and adolescents with diagnoses of depression, anxiety, or ADHD tend to under- or overestimate the passage of one minute, and whether there were differences based on age and/or gender. The sample population (n = 184) was drawn from pre-existing data collected at a private neuropsychological clinic in the Southwest United States. A significant main effect was found for gender on time estimation. No other significant findings were found, but trends consistent with past research were evidenced. Anxious child and adolescent females were found to underestimate the passing of one minute, while anxious child and adolescent males tended to overestimate the passing of one minute. Male and female children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD also underestimated the passing of one minute, while depressed adolescent males and females overestimated the passing of one minute. Limitations, implications for practice, and direction for future studies were also discussed.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Publisher’s Statement: © Copyright is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Cline Library, Northern Arizona University. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Keywords: ADHD; adolescent; anxiety; child; depression; temporal estimation; Time perception
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
MeSH Subjects: F Psychiatry and Psychology > F03 Mental Disorders
NAU Depositing Author Academic Status: Student
Department/Unit: Graduate College > Theses and Dissertations
College of Education > Educational Psychology
Date Deposited: 02 Mar 2022 17:12
Last Modified: 02 Mar 2022 17:12
URI: https://openknowledge.nau.edu/id/eprint/5781

Actions (login required)

IR Staff Record View IR Staff Record View


Downloads per month over past year