About OpenKnowledge@NAU | For NAU Authors

The interaction between grammatical knowledge and explicitness in L2 written corrective feedback

Brown, Daniel (2017) The interaction between grammatical knowledge and explicitness in L2 written corrective feedback. Doctoral thesis, Northern Arizona University.

[img] Text
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (12MB) | Request a copy


This study investigates the relative effectiveness of different types of written corrective feedback (WCF) relative to error type and grammatical knowledge in developing second language (L2) accuracy in writing. Findings on the effectiveness of WCF have been mixed regarding which types of feedback are more effective, however, recent evidence has suggested potential benefits for direct methods (i.e., supplying students with the correct forms) in developing grammatical accuracy over time (Kang & Han, 2015; Russell & Spada, 2006; van Beuningen, de Jong, & Kuiken, 2012). The opinions of several researchers, teachers, and students, however, support the use of indirect WCF (i.e., indicating the location and type of error for students through use of a code) because it is argued to encourage students’ analytic reflection, engagement, and processing of the feedback they receive (Ferris, 2010, 2011; Lalande, 1982). Several learner-internal and learner-external variables have been hypothesized to moderate the effectiveness of different WCF methods (e.g., learners’ perceptions, proficiency, developmental readiness, the nature of the linguistic target, grammatical knowledge), with limited evidence to support any of these claims. This study reports on a controlled classroom-based quasi-experiment conducted in an EFL university context ( N = 127) that investigates the role of grammatical knowledge in moderating the effectiveness of direct vs. indirect WCF on six target grammatical error types. Results provide further evidence in support of moderate effectiveness of WCF for both direct (Cohen’s d = .28) and indirect methods (Cohen’s d = .43), which outperformed the control after five treatments. No clear relationship was found between prior grammatical knowledge and gains in accuracy at the group level, although further analysis of the top and bottom quartile of test scorers across error types suggests advantages for direct WCF for students with prior grammatical knowledge. Pedagogical and theoretical implications are discussed, as well as suggestions for future research on WCF.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Publisher’s Statement: © Copyright is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Cline Library, Northern Arizona University. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Keywords: Feedback type; Grammatical knowledge; Linguistic targets; Metalinguistic knowledge; Written corrective feedback
Subjects: P Language and Literature > P Philology. Linguistics
NAU Depositing Author Academic Status: Student
Department/Unit: Graduate College > Theses and Dissertations
College of Arts and Letters > English
Date Deposited: 20 Dec 2017 22:08
URI: http://openknowledge.nau.edu/id/eprint/4957

Actions (login required)

IR Staff Record View IR Staff Record View


Downloads per month over past year